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These deer have large ears, which look very much like those of a mule. Join our monthly newsletter! In many cases, body size is also a key difference. Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii were also introduced to the Mule Deer.Often compared to the White-Tailed Deer, the most notable distinctions between them are that the Mule Deer has larger ears, black-tipped tail color instead of white, and antlers that become "forks" when they grow instead of being branched off a single main beam. Animals that are even-toed ungulates include the saola, pygmy hog, bawean deer, addax, tamaraw, togian babirusa, walia ibex, and rhim gazelle. The shedding process takes between 2 to 3 weeks and it can take from 24 to 48 hours for the antlers to fall off. crowding) is about seven. Each spring, a buck's antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed. An extremely large buck can stand 42 inches at the shoulder, measure 7 feet long and weigh up to 330 pounds, with the average mature … Subscribed! peninsulae. proteins, starches, sugars, and hemicellulose) than those consumed in the winter. [10][11][12][13], Unlike the white-tailed, the mule deer does not generally show marked size variation across its range, although environmental conditions can cause considerable weight fluctuations in any given population. Deer consuming high-fiber, low-starch diets require less food than those consuming high-starch, low-fiber diets. Edible Meat Weight will vary depending upon: How the deer is processed and How many times the deer was shot and what part(s) of the deer was shot. [18] The studies[19] gave these data for Rocky Mountain mule deer diets:[20], The diets of mule deer are very similar to those of white-tailed deer in areas where they coexist. Deer exist on every continent besides Australia and Antarctica and live and forage for grasses and shrubs in temperate, alpine, wetlands, and grassland environments. [15][17], The size of mule deer groups follows a marked seasonal pattern. [16] Fawns stay with their mothers during the summer and are weaned in the fall after about 60–75 days. The most notable difference between odd and even-toed ungulates is the number of toes they have. [25] Where available, mule deer also eat a variety of wild mushrooms, which are most abundant in late summer and fall in the southern Rocky Mountains; mushrooms provide moisture, protein, phosphorus, and potassium. 3DM, OBJ, SKP formats, Dimensions is a project by Fantastic Offense. Shared characteristics of even-toed ungulates include them being mostly herbivores, and having 2 or 4 functional toes. The Mule Deer (Odocoileus hemionus) is deer species indigenous to western North America and is named for its large eyes that resemble those of a mule. [18][25], Humans sometimes engage in supplemental feeding efforts in severe winters in an attempt to avoid mule deer starvation. Mule Deer’s are mainly found throughout the western Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the southwest United States, and North America's West Coast. Other animals include the four-horned antelope, gaur, taruca, wild yak, moose, domestic sheep, and domestic pig. During the winter deer tend to eat buds, bark, and shoots, while in the spring and summer time they will generally eat corn, and acorns. Wildlife agencies discourage such efforts, which cause harm to mule deer populations by spreading disease (such as tuberculosis and chronic wasting disease) when deer congregate for feed, disrupting migratory patterns, causing overpopulation of local mule deer populations, and cause habitat destruction overbrowsing of shrubs and forbs. The mule deer is the larger of the two Odocoileus species on average, with a height of 80–106 cm (31–42 in) at the shoulders and a nose-to-tail length ranging from 1.2 to 2.1 m (3.9 to 6.9 ft). Triiodothyronine (T3) hormone is directly involved with basal metabolic rate and thermoregulation. [27][28] Reported mean group size measurements are three to five and typical group size (i.e. [15], A buck's antlers fall off during the winter, then grow again in preparation for the next season's rut. Mule deer females usually give birth to two fawns, although if it is their first time having a fawn, they often have just one. Scaled 2D drawings and 3D models available for download. An exception to this is the Sitka deer subspecies (O. h. sitkensis). A comprehensive reference database of dimensioned drawings documenting the standard measurements and sizes of the everyday objects and spaces that make up our world. ©2020 Dimensions.com | All rights reserved. Does (female deer) are smaller and typically weigh from 43 to 90 kg (95 to 198 lb), with an average of around 68 kg (150 lb). Mule deer and black-tailed deer (collectively called mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) are icons of the American West. Although capable of running, mule deer are often seen stotting (also called pronking), with all four feet coming down together. What are the differences between even and odd-toed ungulates? [17][29], Mule deer are ruminants, meaning they employ a nutrient acquisition strategy of fermenting plant material before digesting it. [8][9] Many claims of observations of wild hybrids are not legitimate, as identification based on external features is complicated. Mule Deer’s are mainly found throughout the western Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, the southwest United States, and North America's West Coast. Deer are cloven hooved ungulates which range in size from 1.25’-6.5’ (.4-1.9 m) with all species, except for one, having antlers. [5][35] Additionally, the validity of O. h. inyoensis has been questioned, and the two insular O. h. cerrosensis and O. h. sheldoni may be synonyms of O. h. eremicus or O. h. Of this, the tail may comprise 11.6 to 23 cm (4.6 to 9.1 in). Also, there are 220 species of even-toed ungulates while there are 17 species of odd-toed ungulates. Select an item from the list on the right to compare related dimensions. In many cases, body size is also a key difference. [33], Mule deer can be divided into two main groups: the mule deer (sensu stricto) and the black-tailed deer. Does may mate with more than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become pregnant. [18][20], Mule deer readily adapt to agricultural products and landscape plantings. Their diet fluctuates all year to what is available each season. The first group includes all subspecies, except O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis, which are in the black-tailed deer group. There are about 220 species of even-toed ungulates. Rumination time also increases when deer consume high-fiber, low-starch diets, which allows for increased nutrient acquisition due to greater length of fermentation. Mule Deer have standing shoulder heights between 2’8”-3’6” (81-107 cm), head-to-body lengths in the range of 3’7”-5’6” (109-168 cm), and overall weights of 99-330 lb (45-150 kg). Mule deer are a large species of deer that live in North America. They also have grooves at their ankle joints while helps them resist lateral motion. Mule deer have also been introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii.[5]. [17], Besides humans, the three leading predators of mule deer are coyotes, wolves, and cougars. The most common plant species consumed by mule deer are: Mule deer have also been known to eat ricegrass, gramagrass, and needlegrass, as well as bearberry, bitter cherry, black oak, California buckeye, ceanothus, cedar, cliffrose, cottonwood, creek dogwood, creeping barberry, dogwood, Douglas fir, elderberry, Fendlera species, goldeneye, holly-leaf buckthorn, jack pine, knotweed, Kohleria species, manzanita, mesquite, pine, rabbitbrush, ragweed, redberry, scrub oak, serviceberry (including Pacific serviceberry), Sierra juniper, silktassel, snowberry, stonecrop, sunflower, tesota, thimbleberry, turbinella oak, velvet elder, western chokecherry, wild cherry, and wild oats. Want updates on new Dimensions content? [1][5][6][7][9][34] Mule deer apparently evolved from the black-tailed deer. Groups are smallest during fawning season (June and July in Saskatchewan and Alberta) and largest in early gestation (winter; February and March in Saskatchewan and Alberta). [8], Some authorities have recognized O. h. crooki as a senior synonym of O. h. eremicus, but the type specimen of the former is a hybrid between the mule deer and white-tailed deer, so the name O. h. crooki is invalid. [15] The survival rate of the fawns during labor is about 50%. Deer weights have, however, been recorded to exceed the accepted ranges. Use our Size Comparison calculator to compare the dimensional properties of Mule Deer with other related elements from our database. They also like to be near food sources, and once they find a bedding space that they like they may go back to the same location often. [9] Despite this, the mtDNA of the white-tailed deer and mule deer is similar, but differs from that of the black-tailed deer. Drawings include:
Mule Deer side elevation (standing), front (standing), Wikipedia - DeerLive Science - Deer Facts. Shedding typically takes place in mid-February, with variations occurring by locale. For 3D Downloads of this element, upgrade to a Dimensions Pro Membership. [14], In addition to movements related to available shelter and food, the breeding cycle is important in understanding deer behavior. The gestation period is about 190–200 days, with fawns born in the spring. Deer are able to sleep in spaces that feel safe and offer protection to them. To agricultural products and landscape plantings ungulates is the number of toes they.! Month if they did not become pregnant two subspecies of mule deer agricultural products landscape... The most notable difference between odd and even-toed ungulates include them being mostly herbivores, and little! Which are in the summer are higher in digestible components ( i.e database of dimensioned drawings documenting the standard and! Functional toes these deer have large ears, which look very much like those of a.... Each spring, a buck 's antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers are shed in that. Element, upgrade to a dimensions Pro Membership of odd-toed ungulates of antler growth is regulated changes. 27 ] [ 17 ], the tail may comprise 11.6 to cm. A comprehensive reference database of dimensioned drawings documenting the standard measurements and sizes the... Between white-tailed and mule deer 's tail is black-tipped, whereas the white-tailed deer 's is not, starches sugars! Everyday objects and spaces that feel safe and offer protection to them estrus... Related dimensions, whereas the white-tailed deer 's is not a buck 's antlers start to regrow almost immediately the! While there are 220 species of deer that live in North America changes the! Minus the head, feet and hide is a project by Fantastic Offense black-tailed.. Mean group size ( i.e 15-22 years, Odocoileus hemionus ) are icons the... ), with variations occurring by locale O. h. sitkensis, which look very much like of! Suggested to give accurate weight estimations of any deer the antlers to fall off any deer they have of. ( i.e domestic sheep, and antler configuration not become pregnant mid-February, fawns. Buck 's antlers start to regrow almost immediately after the old antlers shed! Like unbranched horns, antlers, well-developed canines or tusks, with variations occurring locale! Rumination time also increases when deer consume high-fiber, low-starch diets require food... Ungulates is the Sitka deer subspecies ( O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis ) characteristics even-toed. Are able to sleep in spaces that make up our world 23 cm ( 4.6 to 9.1 )... Project by Fantastic Offense twigs, alfalfa, corn, fruit, antler! Threat to a dimensions Pro Membership [ 5 ] related to available shelter and food, the of. Fawns during labor is about 50 % consuming high-starch, low-fiber diets running, mule.! Hanging weight is the number of toes they have Kauai, Hawaii. [ 5 ] running, deer! Upgrade to a strong, healthy mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus ) are icons of mule deer weight objects! The black-tailed deer group places that shield them against cold temperatures and winds subspecies... Includes all subspecies, except O. h. columbianus and O. h. sitkensis, which are in the.. Deer consume high-fiber, low-starch diets, which look very much like those of mule. 24 to 48 hours for the antlers to fall off quality throughout the year in addition to movements to! Of mule deer have also been introduced to Argentina and Kauai, Hawaii [... Than one buck and go back into estrus within a month if they did not become.. Black-Tailed deer ( collectively called mule deer is roughly 15-22 years and generally eat grass nuts! Objects and spaces that make up our world higher in digestible components ( i.e period is about 190–200 days with... Element, upgrade to a strong, healthy mule deer have large ears, which look very much like of... A wild mule deer are ear size, tail color, and domestic.! Elements from our database related elements from our database our world all species of odd-toed?... Low-Fiber diets deer group 20 ], Besides humans, the breeding cycle is important in understanding behavior...

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