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Generally, a fluorescent lamp is covered with a thin layer of tricolor phosphors. The primary Sn–REE deposits of the Pitinga deposit are mainly associated with albite facies granite from the Madeira Complex and greisen facies of topaz granite from the Água Boa Complex (Lenharo et al., 2003; Costi et al., 2005). The name Norite is derived from the Norwegian name for Norway: Norge. 42) who achieved high dissolution rate of yttrium and europium, high extraction rate, and high purity of the final products. if (printReadyElem != null) Damage produced during thin section grinding causes speckles of light in the biotite, where the crystal lattice has been deformed. have presented the only thermodynamically based petrogenetic models for the distribution of trace elements, specifically for yttrium in garnet coexisting with monazite, Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation, Mineralogy and Beneficiation of Vein-Type Apatite Rare Earth Element Ore from Mushgia Khudag, Mongolia, Globally, rare earth elements (REEs) play an essential role in high technologies. However, a subsequent TEM study on the same grains later revealed that the diamond inclusions were not indigenous to the zircon grains and instead resulted from contamination during sample preparation (Dobrzhinetskaya et al., 2014). Help on Above, Ni Y , Hughes J M , Mariano A N , American Mineralogist , 80 (1995) p.21-26, Crystal chemistry of the monazite and xenotime structures. However, the annealing properties of apatite fission tracks have led to a growing number of opportunities to model significant thermal processes in the upper parts of the Earth's crust. To link to this object, paste this link in email, IM or document To embed this object, paste this HTML in website. The alteration of REE-bearing minerals contributes to their enrichment in this horizon and to the presence of hydrated clay minerals, which may be the agents of REE adsorption as in southern Chinese deposits. Although zircon grains have a wide variety of the chemical compositions, the four minerals listed in Table 8 are all identified as zircon following the 50% rule. Incorporation of Th is mainly governed by the huttonite substitution Th^4+ + Si^4+ = REE^3+ + P^5+. Profitieren Sie von dem Wissen und Know-how von Struers, dem weltweit führenden Experten für die materialographische und metallographische Prüfung bei der schnellen und genauen Präparation von Gestein, Mineralien, Keramik und biologischen Proben zur materialographischen Analyse. Doubly polished wafers were used to analyze fluid inclusions by microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy, and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Keyboard's Discussion Groups Help on Above. 22 shows the powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) patterns of three zircon samples from different localities that suggest various crystallinity of zircon: from high crystallinity to fully amorphous. 13 images. X-ray diffraction studies have further shown the absence of REE minerals in the clay-rich layer, which reinforces the hypothesis that the REEs were adsorbed on clay minerals (Santana, 2013). The compositional and textural variations of these granites are related to different depths of granitic body crystallization and the magma source (Lenharo et al., 2003; Dardenne and Schobbenhaus, 2001). This interpretation was questioned by Valley et al. 3); xenotime-(Y) also is present. Shamim A. Dar, ... W.D. Scale: See Image. Brazilian Sn deposits include the Pitinga (Amazon) and the Goiás Tin Province (central Brazil). An example that reveals such “hidden cracks” associated with a quartz + muscovite + monazite inclusion in a c.4200 Ma grain is featured in Fig. if (document.getElementsByTagName != null) Figure 42. Yang et al. Major and trace element analyses of xenotime and monazite were carried out using a Cameca SX-100 EPMA equipped with four wavelength dispersive spectrometers (WDS), at the Department of Geology and … M - Menu Figure 44. 17 images. Birch, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2017. The United Kingdom Virtual Microscope (UKVM) collection consists of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks from around the UK. Monazite included in … The mounts were cleaned and gold coated before each analytical session. Phosphate deposits are important REE resources. Biotite (thin section) View Description. - Start-Stop Rotation Heavy mineral ore separation scheme. (A) Profiles of (200) peak. These decay at a known rate through a series of short-lived radionuclides ultimately to Pb isotopes. Figure 1. Igneous rocks. Chromite is dark-brown to opaque at full thin section thickness. Flow sheet of “dry-wet” combining process. The reserve is composed of 70% LREEs and 30% HREEs, with a high content of critical REEs (Nd, europium, erbium, Dy, and Y). Flow sheet of three typical processes dealing with xenotime. var html = '\n\n'; RBC Thin Section Bearings ITM UNITEC GmbH as authorized RCB distributor represents the entire thin-section bearing porfolio including technical consulting. It is used mostly for biological specimens, but sections of plastics and soft metals can also be prepared. Lherzolite (Type Locality) The name is derived from the Lherz Massif, an alpine peridotite complex (also known as orogenic lherzolite complex). If a cross section is composed of a collection of basic shapes whose centroidal moments of inertia are known along with the distances of the centroids to some reference point, then the parallel axis theorem can be used to calculate moment of inertia of the composite cross section. During the past 2 years, the focus has been on geology, mineralogy, and mineral processing of REOs. Aaron J. Cavosie, ... Simon A. Wilde, in Earth's Oldest Rocks (Second Edition), 2019. ... Thin-section & Government of Western Australia Government of Western Australia Government of Western Australia . Rock A contains aegirine (a pyroxene with formula NaFe(SiO 3 ) 2 abbreviated Ae) and xenotime (a phosphate with formula YPO 4 abbreviated Xe) in a matrix of orthoclase. BRGD001 . These are photomicrographs - very thin slices of rock, seen in plane-polarised light, or between crossed polarisers, when the colours seen are produced by interference of light. Cr-Mg-Al-rich chromites are realtively transparent, and can be dark-brown at full thin section thickness. Zircon is known to have variable crystallinity in addition to various chemical compositions (Hoshino et al., 2012a). These cracks connect to a metamict zone (S3 image), which further connects to the exterior of the zircon. 2.2. A.S. Paschoa, F. Steinhäusler, in Radioactivity in the Environment, 2010. Reproduced with permission from Evans AM (1993) Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals, 3rd edn. calcite, gypsum (section 3.4). Apatite coexisting with xenotime shows high-Y cores and the concentration of Y in apatite increases with metamorphic grade. Moreover, some zircons from the granitic pegmatite contains high Th and U contents by thorite (Zr4 + ↔ Th4 +) and coffinite substitutions (Zr4 + ↔ U4 +). Add tags Comment Rate. Home Rocks and Minerals Plagioclase Feldspar (thin section) Reference URL Share . By measuring U, Th, and He contents, an apparent He age can be calculated on the assumption that the initial He content of the mineral was zero. The REE-bearing minerals in the Serra Dourada Granite are allanite, apatite, bastnaesite, fluocerite, monazite, xenotime, and zircon (Teixeira and Botelho, 2006). Figure 41. The optical section that is in the range of the size of the diffraction pattern is thus obviously not sharp-edged like a slice of bread, but is characterized by a comparably flattish slope. You can then repeat this process for all of the section headers on your page. Thin-Walled Closed Sections Figure 12.7 Representation of cross-section of thin-walled closed section outer inner Here, the inner and outer boundaries are nearly parallel ⇒ resultant shear stresses throughout wall are tangent to the median line. Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America The aim of the site is to allow users to examine and explore minerals and microscopic features of rocks, helping them to develop classification and identification skills witout the need for high-cost microscopes and thin section preparation facilities. Sketch of the coastline in south-west Western Australia, showing the two shorelines of the younger (outer) Capel deposit and older (outer) Yoganup deposit of heavy minerals. Accessory minerals such as monazite, xenotime, and apatite have come to the forefront of research in metamorphic petrology in recent years for two reasons. The Pitinga deposit is located in the southern portion of the Guyana Shield and is formed by large volcanic and plutonic bodies of rock (Costi et al., 2005). Xenotime, a phosphate ore, is one of the valuable mineral deposits of rare earths similar to monazite.The main characteristics of xenotime are listed below: (1) The content of yttrium is high while that of the light rare earths is low (Table 12). IN SITU THIN SECTION LA-ICP-MS U-PB DATING OF MONAZITE AND XENOTIME FROM THE STRAITS SCHIST, WESTERN CONNECTICUT SUPPORTS PROLONGED ACADIAN REGIONAL METAMORPHISM IN THE GNEISS DOME BELT . Plagioclase Feldspar (thin section) View Description . Fission track dating uses damage tracks in apatite arising from the spontaneous fission of 238U, which occurs at a known rate. Open-fill and disseminated Xenotime with hematite dusting . The Geological Survey of Finland (GTK) has been active in Mongolia since 2009, aiding in improving the service capacity of CGL in Ulaanbaatar. Monazite and xenotime occur in different geological contexts (Teixeira and Botelho, 2006; Santana, 2013): in fresh biotite granite, in the saprolitized rock as resistant minerals, and as heavy minerals found in fluvial placer deposits. Rockhounds Discussion Group on Yahoo Groups Xenotime is the main REE mineral in the albite granite of the Madeira Complex, in which Y2O3 reaches 5% (Garcia, 2012). The most important minerals in beach placers are cassiterite, diamond, gold, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, rutile. None of the inclusions in this grain are interpreted as primary magmatic inclusions. Few high-resolution images of inclusions exposed on polished surfaces have been published, and it is clear that although some appear to be primary, many are texturally associated with cracks, veins, and other features (e.g., Rasmussen et al., 2011, 2012). } 102–103, 130–135. urchinTracker(); Print or Cut-and-Paste your Xenotime-(Y) Specimen Label here : Outcrop photos of the xenotime-rich pegmatite zones formed by major faults and local fractures. Miner. Inclusions of monazite and xenotime yielded in situ U–Pb ages (SIMS) that were younger than both the host zircon crystallization age and the age of deposition, even though no textural evidence (cracks, veins) to support a secondary origin was visible (Rasmussen et al., 2010; see also Rasmussen et al., 2011, 2012; Hopkins et al., 2012; Bell et al., 2015a). Moreover, the High Grade Zone prospect site was chosen as the sampling target because the Mongol Gazar mining company underlines this part of the deposit as their highest priority. Moreover, this deposit has estimated reserves of approximately 412 Mt of 0.16% total REEs (Mineração Serra Verde, 2014). A Y-rich annulus has been observed via element mapping in one garnet from SGL5. However, zircon in silicate rocks contains large amounts of REEs and is one of the valuable REE minerals in Nechalacho alkaline syenite deposit, Canada (Hoshino et al., 2013), and Khaldzan Buregtey alkaline granite deposit, Mongolia (Hoshino, unpublished data). Kenny Jolley, Rajaram Asuvathraman, Roger Smith, Inter-atomic potentials for radiation damage studies in CePO 4 monazite, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 10.1016/j.nimb.2016.10.016, 393, (93-96), (2017). In the Serra Dourada granite, the main REE-bearing minerals are zircon, allanite, xenotime, monazite, and bastnaesite (Teixeira and Botelho, 2006). Lucy Takehara, ... Roberto V. Santos, in Rare Earths Industry, 2016. A lherzolite is an ultrabasic igneous rock dominated by essential Olivine and clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene in equal proportions. In polished section, one of these crystal appears to be an overgrowth on a rounded crystal of zircon (Fig. S - Stereo Pair on/off Figure 46. Xenotime, a phosphate ore, is one of the valuable mineral deposits of rare earths similar to monazite.The main characteristics of xenotime are listed below: (1) The content of yttrium is high while that of the light rare earths is low (Table 12). 44). var printReadyElem = document.getElementById("printReady"); Mineralbestand und Zusammensetzung. In polished section, one of these crystal appears to be an overgrowth on a rounded crystal of zircon (Fig. This rock type is normally enriched in HREE because of the low solubility of the monazite in the silica-rich melt (Chakhmouradian and Zaitsev, 2012). The content of tungsten is higher than that of rare earths and there are more impurities such as iron and silicon. I - Data Info } Rare earth element deposits are usually associated with multiphase anorogenic granite complexes in which the latter stages of magma crystallization are highly enriched in incompatible elements, including REEs. mol.m-2 which produces a horizontal cross-sectional area of 55 ~2. Secondary minerals such as kao- linite, gibbsite and iron compounds may also crystallize from external solutions. Many technologies such as precipitation, filtration, liquid–liquid extraction, solid–liquid extraction, ion exchange, super critical extraction, biosorption (Das and Das, 2013), and electrowinning have been applied for the recycling of rare earths from the spent rare earth products such as luminescent materials and permanent magnetic materials. The Eneabba deposits are dominated by rutile whereas ilmenite is dominant in the south. } The global content of HREEs is approximately 98% of the total REE, whereas the LREE is only 2% (Garcia, 2012). An exceptionally high REE content in apatite has been found in several samples collected from the target site. This annulus appears in only one of the three garnets mapped and is thus probably a local phenomenon. The significance of the δ13C values from graphite inclusions in Hadean zircon from Jack Hills will likely remain a controversial subject. Dramatic yttrium zoning in one garnet (Figure 19) is correlated with the rim-ward disappearance of xenotime inclusions, and could be modeled in reference to changing accessory mineral abundances (Pyle and Spear, 1999, 2003). Other authors rely on a scheme implying liquid crushing—leaching by hydrochloric acid—precipitation of ammonia—solid–liquid separation by precipitation of oxalates to recycle yttrium from end-of-life fluorescent lamps as shown in the corresponding flow-sheet in Fig. { (2) The content of thorium is lower than that in monazite (Table 13). Minor accessory mineral in both acidic and alkalic igneous rocks and their pegmatites. (B) BSE images showing the same Qz + Ms + Mnz inclusion on three polished surfaces (S1, S2, and S3). The higher proportion of REEs retained in the clay-rich layer is favored by the chemical behavior of both clays and REEs. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Mineralogical and chemical studies of this xenotime have indicated a high concentration of HREEs (such as yttrium (Y), dysprosium (Dy), and terbium); these elements are considered to be critical REEs. Int. (a) X-ray map and (b) compositional profile of yttrium across a garnet-zone garnet, showing slight increase in yttrium outward from the core, followed by a dramatic drop approximately halfway towards the rim. Brecciated xenotime . The importance of open cracks that may be recent is not clear, but some inclusions are also cut by healed cracks where zircon has recrystallized. Now your section header has a subtle divider that adds a nice design element. Figure 20. The adsorption and desorption processes of REEs are controlled by fluids of the lateritic profile environment and may contribute to REE fractionation and enrichment. Comments: Dark brown colored Xenotime-(Y) crystal. The most important minerals in beach placers are cassiterite, diamond, gold, ilmenite, magnetite, monazite, rutile, xenotime, and zircon. (B) Profiles of (112) peak. } Assuming an average REE content of 460 ppm in phosphorites, the world’s phosphate production of 170 million tons (t) represents over 70,000 t of contained REE (Simandl et al., 2011). Thin Section (,2,11,13,15) Description: Brian Mason The sections show a breccia of two types of clasts, chondritic and achondritic. Massive - Granular - Common texture observed in granite and other igneous rock. About 5.5 million ton (Mt) of heavy minerals (density >2.8 g cm−3), such as monazite, ilmenite, rutile, zircon, yttrium, casserite, bastnasite, and xenotime, are mined annually worldwide; USGS, 2003). Im Unterschied zum Granit enthält Granodiorit deutlich mehr Plagioklas als Kalifeldspat, der Plagioklasanteil beträgt bei den Feldspäten zwischen 65 und 90 Volumenprozent, der modale Gehalt von Quarz schwankt zwischen 20 und 60 Volumenprozent. In the Água Boa granite, Sn mineralization is controlled by micaceous greisen and sodium syenites and could be related to other mineralization such as Zr and REE that occurred together in its alluvium deposit formed from this granite body (Costi et al., 2005). The Madeira and Água Boa granites are mineralized with REEs, and their bodies are elongated and parallel to major regional faults, which are believed to have controlled these intrusions (Lenharo et al., 2003). alert("Could not find the printReady section in the HTML"); PROP.(Enc. if (gAutoPrint) Note also that no cracks are visible in the image of S1; however, hidden cracks are visible in images of S2 and S3. In this case, the authors attempted to demonstrate a primary origin for the graphite inclusions through use of TEM sectioning. Oxford: Blackwells Science Publications. Because rare earths belong to strategic elements in view of their wide applications in high-technology products, their recycling either from industrial scrap (Tanaka et al., 2013) or from consumer products is an increasingly important issue for the engineers. Some zircons contain up to 20 wt.% REE2O3 (Tables 6 and 8; Hoshino et al., 2010). Large survey approaches have also been applied to mineral inclusion studies, with, for example, Hopkins et al. Monazite-(Ce) (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 c 2001-2005 Mineral Data Publishing, version 1 Crystal Data: Monoclinic; metamict if thorium-rich. 46) (Zhong et al., 2014). These include reconstructing the thermal histories of sedimentary basins and evaluating their potential for oil and gas resources, and estimating the timing and magnitude of erosional and tectonic denudation of mountain ranges. More than 60 years RBC has been manufacturing thin-section bearings in many different approved designs and dimensions, used in all kind of industrial and aerospace applications. The tidal zone and wave-cut terraces are optimum situations for such deposition. (2016) analyzed δ18O in quartz inclusions from Hadean zircon grains and showed that 40% of the inclusions preserve pristine high-temperature isotopic compositions but that the rest appear to be altered. H - Help Screen The Pedra Branca and Serra Dourada granites from the Goiás Tin Province were exploited for Sn until the 1990s, and the latter has also been exploited for emerald and amazonite. 12.10), data from mineral inclusions in Jack Hills zircon grains should be judged individually, and overall remain controversial. RMB - Cycle Display Modes Xenotime is substantially (60%) YPO 4 with approximately 30% of other heavy rare earths. In Eastern Australia, these deposits of rutile and zircon occur over a stretch of 900 km in a strip 13 km wide, the thickness of the deposits averaging 30-40 m. Typical sites of beach placer deposition are shown in Figure 4. Home Rocks and Minerals Plagioclase Feldspar (thin section) Reference URL Share . Warning: this large pop-up is very compute intensive and Yttrium then remains low to the rim (source Pyle and Spear, 2003). The Straits underwent amphibolite facies metamorphism at ~600-750 °C and ~0.65-0.9 GPa. The genetic correlation between these volcanic and plutonic rocks is confirmed by their ages, which are 1.87 and 1.88 Ga, respectively (Costi et al., 2005). Drill core. Staurolite is more distinctly pleochroic and has much lower birefringence. The two shorelines in south-west Western Australia are shown in Figure 5, and cross-sections of the deposits there are shown in Figure 6 (Eneabba and Yoganup). H.M., Heavy mineral. developed a “dry-wet” combining method of two hydrometallurgy steps as shown in Fig. Thin sections of these samples were examined by standard microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging. Given the inherent uncertainty of their origin and the paucity of accompanying images at sufficient resolution to evaluate textural relations (e.g., Fig. Cross-section of the Eneabba (top) and Yoganup (bottom) beach placer deposits. As a result, several different isotopic dating techniques can be applied to them. In general, these deposits over granitic rocks have a low mining cost (Wu et al., 1996; Kynicky et al., 2012). Zircon-structure minerals are zircon (ZrSiO4), thorite (ThSiO4), coffinite (USiO4), xenotime (HREEPO4), and a few other listed in Table 7. RESULTS. (C) Profiles of (312) peak. Reproduced with permission from Evans AM (1993) Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals, 3rd edn. Studies of the Si content of muscovite inclusions by Hopkins et al. The Mushgia Khudag deposit has been geologically studied in advance (Gerel, 2010; Munkhtsengel et al., 2013) and is thus known to contain high concentrations of light rare earth elements (LREEs). To link to this object, paste this link in email, IM or document To embed this object, paste this HTML in website. Copyright © 2015 W. S. Maney & Son Ltd. Figure 12.10. Thin sections made of samples of the A horizon show other crystals of pretulite, invariably as an epitactic overgrowth on zir-con crystals (Fig. Marini, Botelho, and Rossi (1992) observed that the higher the potassic feldspar content in the granitic rock, the higher the content of the sum of REEs (ΣREE). The Eneabba deposits are about 300 km north of Perth and include an older beach deposit, about 25 km inland from the present coast, as in the case of the Yoganup deposit, and aeolian dune concentrations in the Jennings part of the Eneabba deposits just to the east of the beach placers. 4); gangue minerals are chamosite with fluorapatite and graphite. The first stage of the collaboration project aimed to improve technological research on mineral processing and operational processes of CGL. 12.10C) and sometimes are adjacent to quartz (e.g., Fig. Chemical Composition of Xenotime, wt% (Xu, 1995). (2) The content of thorium is lower than that in monazite (Table 13). The presence of graphite inclusions with light δ13C values in a Hadean zircon was reported in a later study by Bell et al. In addition, Nb will be used as a byproduct. "); 39 images. Cross-polarized light, field width is 6 mm. They usually contain carbonates and fluorocarbonates as the major REE carriers accompanied by variable mineralogy including abundant phosphates such as apatite, monazite, britholite, and xenotime (Wu, 2008; Castor, 2008; Mariano, 1989). A major consideration in all mineral inclusion studies of Jack Hills zircon is determining if they are primary inclusions that were incorporated as the zircon grew or are secondary inclusions that were either incorporated into the grain or altered by subsolidus processes after igneous crystallization. Reproduced with permission from Evans AM (1993) Ore Geology and Industrial Minerals, 3rd edn. Conceptual flow sheet for recovery of rare earths from waste phosphor powders in spent fluorescent lamps by ionic liquid extraction. (3) The composition of tungsten-containing xenotime is very complicated. Their differential thermodynamic models expand the theoretical treatment described above for major elements, to include yttrium and phosphates. Add tags Comment Rate. Recently, Cameron et al. (Dana8). Ultramicrotomy is a method for cutting specimens into extremely thin slices, called ultra-thin sections, that can be studied and documented at different magnifications in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Allanite is commonly more altered and fractured and generally is replaced by bastnaesite and other secondary minerals (Teixeira and Botelho, 2006; Santana, 2013). But the contents of niobium, tantalum, beryllium, and niobium are lower. printWin.document.close(); F - Fit to Screen tourmaline). The U–Pb geochronology of phosphate inclusions demonstrate convincingly that the REE-bearing accessory phases that have been cited as evidence for peraluminous host rocks do not preserve primary compositions. This means that biotite in standard thin sections rarely goes completely extinct. Xenotime is present as rare inclusions in the high-Y rim , indicating that xenotime also formed during back-reaction. Mineralization in the Serra Dourada includes a combination of ionic clays and resistant minerals remaining in the lateritic profile. Because fission tracks in apatite are ‘healed’ or annealed at temperatures over about 120°C, only rocks which have not undergone subsequent heating events can be dated this way. gibbsite, iron compounds and titanium oxides (section 3.3); - secondary minerals which did not form at the expense of biotite, but which can be found in an interlamellar position of weathered biotite, e.g. M.J. Kohn, in Treatise on Geochemistry, 2003. Oxford: Blackwells Science Publications. © Lou Perloff / Photo Atlas of Minerals, Mouse var headTags = document.getElementsByTagName("head"); BRWD0019 . (2010) describing inclusions in ∼1500 Hadean grains. Zircon contains generally less than 1 wt.% REEs and the analyses with significantly higher REE concentrations are attributed to alteration and/or accidental analysis of inclusions (Hoskin and Schaltegger, 2003). Several methods have been used, i.e., concentrated sulfuric acid, alkaline solution at elevated pressure, fusing with molten caustic soda, and mixing with sodium carbonate and roasting. Costi (2000) divided the Madeira albite–enriched granite facies into core and edge subfacies, which were evidenced by changes in the mineralogy by residual fluids (Costi et al., 2005). A full theoretical prediction for a specific bulk composition (Figure 20; Pyle and Spear, 2003) has intriguing implications for the control exerted by major minerals on accessory mineral stability (e.g., Ferry, 2000), and for the repartitioning of trace elements among major and accessory minerals at different P and T. For example, the increase in monazite abundance at the expense of apatite with decreasing P accords with observations in ultra-high pressure metamorphic (UHP) terranes that monazite exsolves from apatite during exhumation (Liou et al., 1998).

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